Manta Rays

Marine Creature:  Manta Rays (Reef & Giant Oceanic)

Kindly compiled by Guy Stevens of The Manta Trust

General Description

Mantas chain feeding

Mantas chain feeding

Giant Oceanic Manta Ray (Mobula birostris) and the Resident Reef Manta Ray (Mobula alfredi) are cartilaginous elasmobranch fish and belong to the same group of fishes as all the sharks and other rays. They evolved around 28 million years ago.


Manta Rays are found at worldwide locations in tropical or warm temperate waters between 35° N and 35° S latitudes.

Interesting Facts

Although manta rays have around 300 rows of tiny teeth in their lower jaws they are not used for eating. They are blunt and are only used in the courtship rituals.

Manta rays sleep by reducing their movements and swimming in small, slow, circular patterns whilst shutting off parts of their brain. Like sharks, if manta rays were to stop swimming they would sink.

  • Lifespan: 40-50 years
  • Size: Average 3-5m
  • Food: Zooplankton
Mantas chain feeding

Mantas chain feeding


Manta Rays fertilize internally. The males, which are smaller than the females, chase her around the reef, forming long lines known as mating trains. These mating trains may last for days until the female selects one of the males to mate with her. The females are pregnant for 13 months and produce a single pup at the end of gestation. The average size newborn pup is 1.5-2m in disc width. 

Feeding & Hunting

Manta rays have forward facing mouths which they use to filter plankton from the water. They use their cephalic lobes (fins) and huge mouths to force plankton-rich water over their gills as they swim. Manta rays often feed cooperatively to maximise their planktonic rewards through the least amount of effort.


Manta rays face natural threats from large warm water predators such as tiger sharks and killer whales, however the main threat faced by manta rays is man. Manta rays are often caught as bycatch, or harvested and sold for their meat, oily livers, and skin. In recent years there has been an increase in demand for the gill rakers of the manta to be dried and used in traditional Asian medicine.

Conservation Status & International Protection

Manta rays are currently listed as ‘Near Threatened’ on the ICUN’s list of threatened species. Due to their low birth rates, slow growth and maturity rates, manta rays are particularly susceptible to habitat degradation and intensive fishing methods.

How can people help?

Manta surface feeding

Manta surface feeding

Each manta ray has a unique pattern of black spots on its white belly. These spots can be used just like a human fingerprint to identify individuals. The mantas are born with this pattern and they don’t change throughout their life. Photos of these markings, along with the date and location of where the manta was sighted, can greatly help researchers identify and study the mantas lives. If you have clear photos of these markings please submit them to the Manta Trust database here Other ways to help are:

Avoid touching or harassing the mantas whilst diving or snorkelling with them. Watch the Manta Trust’s short film, How To Swim With Mantas, and view their 10 Step Guide to learn how to sustainably interact with manta rays, wherever you are in the world.

Supporting charities that are dedicated to the conservation and protection of these amazing animals and their habitat will also help to safeguard their future.

Join The Cyclone to become part of a community of supporters investing in the conservation of the ocean’s manta rays, their relatives, and their habitats. By donating monthly to the Manta Trust you can gain a front row seat to their global conservation efforts. Find out more:

Best places in the world to see these creatures:

The Republic of Maldives has a resident population of around 5-7000 reef mantas, which are not fished or threatened through habitat destruction. As a result, the rich waters of the Maldives make this country one of the most renowned places to spot manta rays in large numbers. There are many other countries around the world where you can also see manta rays; e.g. Hawaii, Indonesia, Palau and Mexico.

Scientist Profile:  Guy Stevens


Manta Trust & Maldivian Manta Ray Project

Year(s) Founded

2011 & 2005 respectively

Funding bodies

Save our Seas Foundation (SOSF)

Web link:

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Description/Background of work

Manta Trust works to advance the worldwide conservation of manta rays and their habitat through robust science and research, raising awareness, providing education, influence and action. Our vision is a world where manta rays thrive within a globally healthy marine environment.

Importance of work

Despite their popularity with divers and snorkelers many aspects of the manta rays lives remain a mystery, with only snippets of their life history understood.  More worryingly, in recent years, a fishery for these animals has developed with devastating effects on populations of these animals globally. For volunteering information see:


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